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And the Telugu short literature.
The saint poets undertook reformation around the story too has suffered. The main tory of the dalits. Sudra saints led a movement against the retro- preoccupation of the brahmin writers lay in either extolling the gressive elements of Hinduism in the direction of religious refor- kings or preserving the Vedic cult in lieu of the patronage they mation. Since Hinduism as a religion has been averse to reforma- had received in the form of agraharams gift-villages.
The tradi- tion and modernisation, the movement assumed the form of so- tion of competitive extolling of the patron kings and preserving cial reformation, instead. The reformers questioned the basis of of the religious cult continued through the 14th and 15th centu- social inequality and discrimination. It had a bearing on the ries.
The poets of this generation were vociferous in attacking Social Reformation the brahminical order. Thus, following the Bhakti tradition and After a protracted hiatus of about years, an attempt at social the limited appeal of the social reformation movement, dalit in- reformation was made in the late 19th century. The first of such tellectuals played a vital role in radicalising dalit thought and writers was Gurajada. As a part of the movement, Gurajada and polity.
What were the forerunners of the contemporary dalit literary and cul- signifies the reformation movement is that it expanded its scope tural movements in the state.
Gurajada used especially the Congress suppressed dalit struggles in the name of the short story to propagate reforms in the society. He deviated the independence movement.
This too needs to be understood as from his predecessors in choosing both his themes and language. The dalit movement The themes of his stories were didactic; and the language he pre- suffered a setback with the death of Bhagyareddy Verma in ferred was the spoken mode. Gurajada and Kandukuri question. Gurajada is con- and other upper castes. The beginnings of the nationalist move- sidered the harbinger of modernity in Telugu literature.
The reformers did not question the socio-religious privileged the translation literature at the cost of Telugu. The lan- bases that sanctified the evil practices. It respect of liberating the upper caste women. They did not at- was written off as the language of the sudras, a phenomenon tempt to question and negate the caste system. Thus, the social comparable to English which had been considered the language reformers of modern Andhra did not continue the medieval of the poor by the Latin and Greek scholars during the formative Bhakti tradition.
There was a break. The social reformation must years of that language. The nationalistic literature failed to reflect the problem of the dalit questioning of caste and the concomitant evils like the untouch- masses.
It was generally believed that national liberation would ability, discrimination and oppression were absent in the most solve the dalit problems too. Thus, the nationalistic writings of the s failed to explore dalit issues. The Dalit Challenge Similarly, the progressive literature of the s too sought to The third challenge of dalit subordination was the one waged in sideline the sociocultural specificities like the caste, gender and the name of the Adi-Andhra movement in the form of political ethnicity.
The Marxists failed to understand the caste-specific mobilisation. The first conference having taken place in , a character of Indian society. In the subsequent period the or the leftists. It is in this context that Gail Omvedt explains why movement took different forms in the names of Adi-Andhra and the Phule-Ambedkar movement was overshadowed by the dis- Adi-Dravida movements. Bhagyareddy Verma played a pivotal courses of the left and the right. The nationalist movement was role in radicalising and organising dalits.
Boyi Bhimanna Regionalisation called for unity between the Mala and the Madiga, whom he Telugu produced a galaxy of short story writers including termed the ma-ma castes and claimed that the highest order of Sripada Subramanya Shastry, Chinta Dikshitulu, Vishwanatha the dalits were descendants of Arundhati and Vasistha.
The volumes, each one R S Sudarshnam among others and whose names are synony- containing about 28 stories, are classified into as many sub- mous with short stories in Telugu. A characteristic feature of themes. Hardly one-fifth of the stories in each of the volumes are these writers was that they belonged to the upper castes and to by dalits and the rest are by brahmin and upper caste writers. Their writings overshadowed the writers of the lower about dalits.
But they lack the essential dalit aspects of self- castes and the writings from the Telangana and Rayalaseema respect, assertion and protest. The most noteworthy non-dalit regions, which have a distinct language.
These two regions are writers writing on the dalit themes include Sripada Subrahman- known for their different ethos because of the backwardness and yasastry, Banda Kanakalingeswar Rao, Veluri Sivarama Sastri, poverty they suffer from.
The rise in liter- ichand. Their stories are confined to the description of the inhu- acy and awarenesshas led to a shift in the genre. Ranga Rao manity of untouchability and exploitation. These stories were written against the back- other two regions. Therefore, dialect and depiction of the struggles of the people for socio- there is a view that holds that these stories cannot be considered economic equality. Their themes include the failure of like Allam Rajaiah, B S Ramulu, Boya Jangaiah, Thummeti the State in transforming the lives of dalits and exploitation by Ragotham Reddy, Jukanti Jagannatham and others wrote differ- the upper castes.
What is characteristic of the non-dalit writers ently from their counterparts in the coastal region by using the and their writing is that the dalits were written about with sym- respective dialects of their regions. In the subsequent period, pathy. The general anthologies that have come out in the recent ation of the s, the Digambara Kavulu Naked Poets of the past gave adequate representation to the dalit short story s, and the Viplava Rachayithala Sangham Revolutionary writers, including women writers.
The de-centring and regionalisation of the genre thus containing aspects like search for self-respect, the angst and legitimised the use of dialects and sociolects thus paving the way language of dalits.
This phase is indicative mins. But what is noteworthy is that quite a few of them wrote of the emergence of the dalit middle classes. The beginning of the Telugu calise the dalit masses. Instead, their objective has been to strug- dalit short story has to be traced to the writings of the brahmins.
As against this kind of writing, there tation, caste, agrarian relations, bonded labour and so on. It is has emerged a group of writers that produces writing in raw and against this background that the first ever anthology of Telugu unrefined forms in defiance of the canonical literary forms.
Their dalit short stories, entitled Dalita Kathalu Dalit Stories ,19 target readers are not the middle classes and their objective is not jointly edited by R Chandrasekhar Reddy and Laxminarayana in- acceptability, but the ascertainment of their marginalised, subor- cluded the stories of non-dalit writers. Of the 25 authors, only dinated and othered self. They have been able to accomplish four — Kolakaluri Enoch, Chilukuri Devaputra, Boya Jangaiah the assertion of the dalit self by writing in the oral tradition and and Shanti Narayana — are dalits, while the rest are mostly making use of diction which could be described as obscurantist brahmins or from the upper castes.
Besides this anthology, and obscene. A host Yugamu and Bhavakavithva Yugamu strengthened the elements of contemporary dalit writers have been producing poetry, novels of Sanskrit. The subsequent literary periods — Abhyudaya and short stories in this category.
In one of his under the influence of the left too did not attempt to free Telugu. Their mudhouse subordination of the native elements of the Telugu of the sudras counterparts in Telugu have been producing remarkable writings and the dalits continued to be brushed aside as the language of in the new millennium, especially expressing themselves in short illiterates and the uncivilised.
Over the ages, this process had stories. The present anthology consists of the short However, what is noteworthy is that the ancient and original stories representing the most experienced dalit short story writer forms of Telugu have been preserved in a different form.
Telugu kathalu - Telugu sahityam
This like Kolakaluri Enoch to the youngest, Nallala Laxmirajam. These aspect of preservation remained unnoticed till the consolidation stories represent the dalit ethos in the dalit language; retain links of dalit literature. In other words, there has been a continuity in with their identity and the past.
The dalit identity, representation the native Telugu in use during and after the period of Sanskri- and authenticity are some of the common themes of the stories tised Telugu. The continuity of the ancient Telugu was latent in indicating how closely they are grounded in dalit reality. There are three primary experiences and achieve visibility, when compared to his Mala reasons for this. The curing of cattle hide, sewing cheppulu and known as writers.
This is certainly a shortcoming on the part of other leather items required in agricultural work and transporta- the Telugu dalit writing, and the state is to be held responsible for tion; eating cattle meat; preserving the leftover cattle meat; and keeping them away from literacy even 60 years after independence.
But these practices were also the source itself. The Madiga forms of they represent the contemporary dalit movement. What anthologies and authors to its lists year after year. Untouchability as a plished the uncommon feat of recording dalit lives in the dialects form of social ostracisation is a characteristic feature of Hindu of the regions concerned.
They include Vemula Yellaiah, Jupaka society. The homo- ugu which were unaffected by the influence of Sanskrit. The lan- geneous nature of the dalit groups thus helped preserve the an- guage used by them is the culmination of the privileging of two cient forms of the Telugu language.
The second reason is the spatial ostracisation of the dalits in The first one is related to the privileging of the dialects of the the village which had been a kind of cementing of the social corresponding regions and the sociolect of the dalits. The latter, ostracisation. The topography and the demography of every vil- especially, would have been detested if used in literature in the lage had been structured in such a way that the clusters of the earlier times.
The translated literary works brought into the houses were and still are separated by caste lines. The houses of Telugu language the use of Sanskrit words which got legitimised. Therefore, this shift are situated far outside the village. The dependent castes like the from the written mode to the spoken mode was very limited for Dakkalis, who are themselves untouchable to the untouchable it ignored the language of the masses; the language of the dalits Madigas, are not a part of any village.
The dependent castes are and sudras. Telugu dalit litera- unaffected. The extent of Sanskrit words used in Telugu is simi- ture itself underwent a drastic transition from Gurram Jashuva, lar to the demographic division of the population in the village its forerunner who authored Gabbilam ; to the mod- and the caste hierarchy: while the Telugu of the brahmins is most ern phase. The former used the classical form padyam rhymed affected, the Telugu of the Madigas is least affected by the verse of metrical feet to portray the dalit suffering, angst and process of import of the Sanskrit words.
The spurt in dalit writing from onwards heralded a The third reason is the illiteracy of the dalits. Literacy, educa- new era. In fact, the literacy and education of the savarnas upper Pradesh. The form and technique of the writing is, in fact, shaped castes legitimised the elements of Sanskrit in the Telugu lan- by the content.
By subordinating the form to the content; by priv- guage while the illiteracy of the Madigas and the other most ileging the subject matter over technique, dalit writers unveiled backward sudras prevented the Sanskrit words from entering dalit ethos in literature, an unimaginable feature as far as con- into their language. The socio-spatial and academic ostracisation ventional writing is concerned.
The ancient Telugu. To gather more authentic forms of the unpolluted great tradition is made great through the sociological process of or ancient forms of Telugu, an empirical data of the Telugu spo- assimilation by subordinating the native traditions. Yet the native ken by the castes, who are untouchables within the untouchables, elements of the traditions invariably retain their character be- would be more reliable.
The retained forms are termed the little traditions. The Madiga Oral Storytelling tradition, like those of various castes and tribes in India, forms The second aspect of the language of the Telugu dalit literature part of the little traditions which withstand the attempts of as- has been the use of the oral tradition.
Ever since the beginning of similation and retain their original character. What characterises the translation literature and the subsequent Telugu literary the tradition of the Madigas is their exclusivist occupation of movements, the written mode had been institutionalised by priv- working with leather which is not undertaken by any other caste.
The use of the Sanskrit-centric By the nature of the occupation and exclusion, the Madiga caste Telugu in literature as well as in the royal courts continued to be corresponds to the Chakkiliyas of Tamil Nadu, the Chamars of used unchallenged. It remained in force in some form or the other north India and the Chambhars of Maharashtra.
The main duty throughout the history of Telugu language and literature. Besides the leather work, the Madigas are the main jada Appa Rao In the subsequent period, Gurajada source of field labour for the landowning communities for which and Gidugu Ramamurthy advocated the use of the they are entitled to mirasi, the rights of support and wages for oral mode in literature. The tradition which thus started as a part the routine field labour.
They also render other services like of the social reformation movement also reformed the language cleaning the streets, notifying the villagers by oral announce- to the extent of the formation of the Free Verse Front by a writer ments accompanied by the drumbeat and manual cleaning of called Kundurthi in the 20th century. The shift from the written human excreta. For rendering these services, they may or may to the oral mode by any reckoning is a major leap in the reforma- not get remuneration.
In the early period, the Madigas were tion of Telugu language and literature. However, this movement treated as etti, bonded labourers. The oral mode that the writers The Madigas eat cattle meat because of its affordability and proposed and used was the one spoken by the upper castes, espe- nutrition.
On the occasions of ceremonies and festivals, they pro- cially the educated brahmins. In the ment including the free verse movement did not take into ac- subsequent period, their meat eating and leather work became count the use of the language of the masses, like for instance, the source of their untouchability. Devarakonda Bala Gangadhar Tilak.
Kandukuri Veeresalingam. Tripuraneni Gopichand. Malathi Chandur. Narayana Reddy. Mohammad Khadeer Babu. Devulapalli Venkata Krishnasastri. Adivi Bapiraju. Madhurantakam Rajaram.
Gollapudi Maruthi Rao. Kalipatnam Ramarao. Yann Martel. Sripada Subrahmanya Sastry. Vasireddy Seethadevi. Kodavatiganti Kutumba Rao. Somaraju Susila. Swami Shiva Shankara Shastri. Tapi Dharma Rao.
Bhamidipati Ramagopalam. Achanta Sarada Devi. Chilakamarthi Lakshmi Narasimham. Swami Siva sankara sastri.
Vempalli Gangadhar. Jonnalagadda kameswari devi. Malladi Venkata Krishnamurthy. Rachakonda Viswanatha Sastry. Ampashayya Naveen.
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Siddhartha books 0 friends. Dec 13, Telugu mutyalu. Jul 13, Oct 19, Mar 13, How to Read these books in online. Dec 14, It is good colletion i found one more colltion http: Mar 02, The dalit identity, representation the native Telugu in use during and after the period of Sanskri- and authenticity are some of the common themes of the stories tised Telugu.
Edu- dalits could be termed the scheduled caste SC phase. The works of the following period could ments and waged agitations for self-respect, dalit rights, equality, be rightly termed the dalit phase and were produced by second and empowerment.
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